Vroom Expectations Theory Presentation
Developed by the psychologist Victor Vroom, Vroom Expectations Theory is one of the many theories that seek to explain human motivations. According to Vroom, the motivation process should be explained according to the goals and choices of each person and to their expectations in achieving those same goals. Synthetically, Vroom defends that the motivational strength (M) of a certain person corresponds to the product of the intended value given by himself to a goal (V=Valence) for the probability to reach that same goal (E=Expectation): M = V.E.
Thus defined, motivation is null either in the case that it is indifferent to achieve or not a certain goal, either in the case in which doesn’t exist any expectation in achieving the result. The same way, occurs discouragement whenever the valence is negative, this is, when the person prefers to not achieve the goal.
As it was presented, Vroom Expectations Theory presents some characteristics that make it more realistic then other theories to explain motivations, namely the needs theories that place little emphasis in the individual characteristics. On the other hand, for being very compatible with the goals management systems, has had a great acceptance by numerous managers.
Lyman W. Porter and Edward E Lawer III, through their model (Porter and Lawer Model) add to this theory the influence of current performance, which depends not only of the effort spent, but also of the skills/knowledge for the tasks fulfillment and the perception of everything needed for its achievement and which the desired results. From this performance will depend the satisfaction level which, in its turn, will determine the expected value of what will receive.