Life and work of Chester I. Barnard
Chester I. Barnard was president of a big north American telephones’ company, and author of the recognized work “The Functions of the Executive” published by the first time in 1938. In his work, Barnard establishes a relation between the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency, defining effectiveness as the contribution of an action for the goals of the organization and efficiency as the contribution of an action for the fulfillment of the organizations’ members.
According to Barnard the organization’s survival depends on the existence of a minimum degree of effectiveness and efficiency, being responsibility of the management to assure that minimum degree. By other words, are management tasks to create conditions /through the adequate communication systems and participation) so that each member looks within (makes his own) the organization’s goals. Therefore, is place for the first time the emphasis on the relations between the several components of the organization, forming Management Systemic Approach basis.