Average Payments Period

Average Payments Period Concept Average Payments Period is an activity indicator that seeks to measure the efficiency level with which the company is managing its suppliers payments. The bigger the average payments term, bigger its payment terms negotiation capacity but can also mean difficulties in the fulfillment of the agreed terms. Average payments period is […]

Average Receipts Period

Average Receipts Period Concept Average Receipts Period is an activity indicator that seeks to measure the efficiency level with which the company is managing its clients credit. The bigger the average receipts term, lower is the credit policy efficiency. Average receipt period is calculated by the division of the average amount of clients credit by […]

Average Stocks Period

Average Stocks Period Concept Average Stocks Period is an activity indicator that seeks to measure the efficiency level with which the company is managing its stock inventories. The bigger the average stocks period, lower is the stocks management efficiency. Average stocks period is calculated by the division of the average amount of stocks by the […]

Communication Plan

Communication Plan Concept A communication plan is a document that establishes the way which should assume organizational communication. This plan should mandatorily include the following elements: Goal: which goal, or goals, that is intended to achieve with communication; this aim should, naturally, be integrated in the mission of the organization, in its global goals and […]

Financial Leverage

Financial Leverage Concept: Financial Leverage corresponds to a financial growth effect of Profitability of Equity Capitals (also designated as…

Garfield Principles

Garfield Principles Concept: Garfield Principles for Clients Rotation Reduction were developed by Maynard M. Garfield and rely in the…

Henri Fayol Management Principles

Henri Fayol, like Taylor, also defined several principles, over which the organizations should operate, from which are highlighted: Tasks specialization principles: represents the work division made in the organization in groups of activities or duties related among them as a way to increase productivity and efficiency. Balance between authority and responsibility principle: means that the […]

Industrial Psychology

Industrial Psychology Concept: Industrial Psychology is a managing branch that results from several jobs that searched to…

Maslow Pyramid

Maslow Pyramid Concept Created by Abraham H. Maslow, and also known as the Pyramid of Needs, the Maslow Pyramid ranks the human needs in an ascendant scale with the aim to understand the people’s motivations. The needs described by Maslow are, by ascending order, the following: Physiologic Needs: represent the instinctive needs of survival such […]

Operational Planning

Operational Planning Concept Operational plan contains the details of the way how should be implemented the strategic plan on the organizations’ daily activity. Usually is performed by the intermediate managers, with the cooperation of the supervisors. Operational plans can originate two types of plans: Unit use plans, used in situations that occur only one time […]

Paretos’ Diagram

Paretos’ Diagram Concept: Paretos’ Diagram constitutes one of the tools used in quality control and was initially defined by…

Participative Management

Participative Management Concept: Participative Management designates a kind of organizations’ management which places the emphasis in…

PDCA Cycle

PDCA Cycle Concept: PDCA Cycle (acronym of the English terms Plan, Do, Check and Act), also known as Deming Cycle as a tribute to…

Personality and Organization (Book)

Summary of the Book “Personality and Organization” In “Personality and Organization”, a true classic of behavioral science, written by Chris Argyris in 1957, is defended that companies and its success depend fundamentally from people. The great theme of the book is, so, the way how personal development is, and should be, related with the work […]

PEST Analysis

PEST Analysis Concept PEST Analysis is a model of the organizations’ macro-environmental external surroundings analysis, which acronym corresponds to the initials of the four groups of factors or environmental variables to be analyzed, namely: Political-Legal Variables: governmental stability, legislation and markets’ regulation, tax policy, labor legislation … Economic Variables: product evolution, tax rate, inflation rate, […]

Philip Crosby

Philip Crosby’s Biography: Philip Crosby was born in the United States in 1926, in Wheeling West Virginia. In 1952 worked as…

Philip Kotler

Philip Kotler Biography: Born in 1931 in Chicago in the United States, Kotler is an important scholar with a great influence in the marketing area. Between…


Planning Concept: Planning consists on the choice of goals on a medium and long term and on the forethought of the means and ways in…

Political-Legal Context

Political-Legal Context Concept Political-Legal Context designates a group of contextual variables with influence in the performance and in the activity and represents the political situation and legal principles and conditions allocation of powers and provides the legal framework of the society. Are examples of Political-Legal Context variables the following: Political stability: In Portugal there has […]


Positioning Concept: The word positioning is a commonly used term in marketing and that in a generic way designates the way how a…

Price Waterhouse Just-in-Time Model

Price Waterhouse Just-in-Time Model Presentation Just-in-time Model developed by price Waterhouse is a quick analysis tool and not quantitative of a manufacturing unit on a Just-in-time perspective (JIT). This tool can be used to identify productivity improvement opportunities in the manufacturing facilities, to evaluate JIT programs and to communicate JIT concepts to the employees and […]

Production Management

Production Management Concept: Production management (or operations management) is one of the traditional management functional…


Productivity Concept: Productivity is an efficiency indicator of an organization or a country used a lot in economical and financial analysis and in…

Products’ Life Cycle

Products’ Life Cycle Concept: A products’ life cycle is a concept (or model) that describes the evolution of a product or service in the…


Profitability Concept: Profitability is one of the analyzed variable by the economical and financial analyses and represents the return rate (or income) of…

Projects Management

Projects Management Concept: Projects Management can be described as the planning, performance and control process of a…

Public Relations

Public Relations Concept: The expression public relations designates an organizational communication activity whose main goal is…

Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning Concept Strategic planning corresponds to the attempt of foreseeing and to give a timely response to the happenings that come to be verified in the surroundings through the definition and structuring of the long term general performance lines, in order to achieve the proposed goals. Strategic planning can be divided in: Corporative level […]

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