Anaphase definition Anaphase designates one of the sub phases of mitosis and is characterized by the cleavage of centromeres and consequent separation of the two chromatids from each chromosome that moves away to opposite poles of the cell. It is divided into anaphase A and anaphase B. Cell Cycle Eukaryotic cells are continually dividing and […]


Anatomy is the Biology’s branch that study the physical structure of living organisms, focusing on the study of interaction and organization of the constituent’s parts.   Branches of Anatomy Anatomy includes the plant field and the human and animal field. The plant field concerns its study on plants and is called Phytology. On the other hand, the human […]


The anemones are animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. This phylum includes free-living animals (such as jellyfish) and sessile (immobile) animals (such as anemones). Anemones can move (very slowly and for very short distances), but are predominantly sessile animals. They have a simple structure and live in aquatic environment – most of them are marine, […]


Aquaculture consists on the application of farming techniques on the production of marine and freshwater organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, bivalves and aquatic plants. This industry targets the productions of organisms for human consumption, ornamental trade, biotechnological applications or natural stocks restoration efforts. This practice, which dates back to ancestral times, aroused great interest after […]


The term Autosome refers to any of the chromosomes that make up the genetic heritage of a living being, with the exception of sex chromosomes.

Bacterial cellulose

Concept: Bacterial cellulose is a form of cellulose resulting from biosynthesis performed by bacteria from the genera Glucanacetobacter, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Sarcina, Alcaligenes, etc., from which the most efficient and, consequently, more thoroughly studied is Glucanacetobacter xylinus. It was in the culture medium of these gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria, often found in fruits, vegetables, vinegar and fermented […]

Cell Biology (Cytology)

Cell Biology’s definition (Cytology) Cell Biology is the Biology’s branch which study the cell, focusing on its function, structure, physiological features, constituents, life cycle, division, death and interactions with other cells and surrounding environment. This branch of Biology covers both the study of single-cell organisms (bacteria and protozoa) as the study of more complex organisms, […]

Cell Junctions

Cell junctions definition Cell junctions refers to specialized regions through which cells adhere and communicate with each other or with the extracellular matrix. Cellular Communication Cells are small, with a thin, malleable plasma membrane and internally composed by liquid with suspended organelles. In addition to these characteristics, different types of cells are in line in […]

Cell lysis

The cell lysis is the process of destruction or dissolution of the cell caused by the rupture in the plasma membrane (…)

Cholera Toxin

Cholera toxin is a protein secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and responsible for the main symptom of cholera, an acute diarrhoea.

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