Anatomy is the Biology’s branch that study the physical structure of living organisms, focusing on the study of interaction and organization of the constituent’s parts.   Branches of Anatomy Anatomy includes the plant field and the human and animal field. The plant field concerns its study on plants and is called Phytology. On the other hand, the human […]


Aquaculture consists on the application of farming techniques on the production of marine and freshwater organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, bivalves and aquatic plants. This industry targets the productions of organisms for human consumption, ornamental trade, biotechnological applications or natural stocks restoration efforts. This practice, which dates back to ancestral times, aroused great interest after […]


The term Autosome refers to any of the chromosomes that make up the genetic heritage of a living being, with the exception of sex chromosomes.

Bacterial cellulose

Concept: Bacterial cellulose is a form of cellulose resulting from biosynthesis performed by bacteria from the genera Glucanacetobacter, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Sarcina, Alcaligenes, etc., from which the most efficient and, consequently, more thoroughly studied is Glucanacetobacter xylinus. It was in the culture medium of these gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria, often found in fruits, vegetables, vinegar and fermented […]

Cell Biology (Cytology)

Cell Biology’s definition (Cytology) Cell Biology is the Biology’s branch which study the cell, focusing on its function, structure, physiological features, constituents, life cycle, division, death and interactions with other cells and surrounding environment. This branch of Biology covers both the study of single-cell organisms (bacteria and protozoa) as the study of more complex organisms, […]

Cell lysis

The cell lysis is the process of destruction or dissolution of the cell caused by the rupture in the plasma membrane (…)

Cholera Toxin

Cholera toxin is a protein secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and responsible for the main symptom of cholera, an acute diarrhoea.


The term “Cytology” derives from the Greek kytos (cell) and logos (study), concerns the study of the cell and aims the evaluation of their structure, function and generation as a single entity. The term “cell” was described for the first time in 1665 by the English scientist Robert Hooke. Cytology study areas Depending on the context and […]

GFP – Green Fluorescent Protein

GFP – Green Fluorescent Protein, is the first naturally fluorescent protein that has been identified. Its discovery has revolutionized the life sciences.


Interferons are important components of the immune system that trigger cellular defences in response to infection by viruses or bacteria and tumour formation (…)



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