Anaphase definition Anaphase designates one of the sub phases of mitosis and is characterized by the cleavage of centromeres and consequent separation of the two chromatids from each chromosome that moves away to opposite poles of the cell. It is divided into anaphase A and anaphase B. Cell Cycle Eukaryotic cells are continually dividing and […]


Anatomy is the Biology’s branch that study the physical structure of living organisms, focusing on the study of interaction and organization of the constituent’s parts.   Branches of Anatomy Anatomy includes the plant field and the human and animal field. The plant field concerns its study on plants and is called Phytology. On the other hand, the human […]

Cell Biology (Cytology)

Cell Biology’s definition (Cytology) Cell Biology is the Biology’s branch which study the cell, focusing on its function, structure, physiological features, constituents, life cycle, division, death and interactions with other cells and surrounding environment. This branch of Biology covers both the study of single-cell organisms (bacteria and protozoa) as the study of more complex organisms, […]

Cell Junctions

Cell junctions definition Cell junctions refers to specialized regions through which cells adhere and communicate with each other or with the extracellular matrix. Cellular Communication Cells are small, with a thin, malleable plasma membrane and internally composed by liquid with suspended organelles. In addition to these characteristics, different types of cells are in line in […]


Chromatin Definition Chromatin refers to a complex formed by DNA, histones and other proteins, which makes it possible for the eukaryotic cell to condense and store all its DNA inside the nucleus. Chromatin forms chromosomes. Chromatin and Chromosomes For its cycle (growth, metabolism, differentiation, division and death), eukaryotic cell needs a lot of information, all […]


Chromosome definition Chromosome consists of a large, linear DNA molecule that is associated with proteins responsible for its packaging, forming chromatin (this structure is similar in eukaryotes, including fungi, plants and animals). The main function of chromosome is transportation of genes from parental cell to daughter cells. Chromosome constitution Due to its large size, the […]


Cytology derives from the Greek kytos (cell) and logos (study), concerns the study of the cell and aims the evaluation of their structure, function and generation as a single entity. The term “cell” was described for the first time in 1665 by the English scientist Robert Hooke. Cytology study areas Depending on the context and purpose of use, […]


Cytopathology (also known by cytology) is the branch of Pathology (medical specialty) that study the morphology of single cells with the aim of detecting morphological anomalies that aid in the diagnosis of diseases. Rudolf Virchow, a German physician, was responsible for the foundation of this discipline in 1858.   Exams ind Cytopathology The exams are […]

DNA repair

Concept To prevent that DNA damage and errors remain in the cell, having serious consequences or being passed on to offspring, the cell has several mechanisms that correct errors and maintain genome integrity, called DNA repair mechanisms. Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have these mechanisms. The importance of DNA repair DNA is the basis of the […]


Endosome definition Endosome refers to the vesicular compartment/organelle present in animal cells, involved in transport of material ingested by the cell by endocytosis to the lysosomes. Endocytosis Every single cell need to ingest material from the extracellular medium, either for their regulation and for their growth. In the case of prokaryotic cells, this process occurs […]